Some time ago I took a look at i915 driver a bit. During my research I had found a few problems which had been fixed. Today (14th of May 2019), Intel announced the fix for reported security bug in i915 driver when Graphical Virtualization (GVT) is enabled under KVM (CVE-2019-11085 / INTEL-SA-00249). To be more specific, Intel’s vGPU driver allows for mappinng of arbitrary physical page into the context of calling process via mmap()

Additionally, Linux kernel community fixed two other bugs:

“[1/2] drm/i915: Prevent a race during I915_GEM_MMAP ioctl with WC set”

“[2/2] drm/i915: Handle vm_mmap error during I915_GEM_MMAP ioctl with WC set”

These bugs are pretty interesting from the pure research perspective so it is worth to take a look at the published patches.




by pi3

One of the author of Windows Internals (Andrea Allievi) asked me and my friend David Kaplan if we could write a section about System Guard Runtime Attestation for their book. We’ve written about 3-4 pages describing internals of that project which we fully designed. Our section will be included in Windows Internals 7th edition part 2 (release date around August 2019):

Windows Defender System Guard Runtime Attestation (SGRA / SGRM) is internally known as a project Octagon which me and Dave fully designed and implemented together with Octagon v-team. Octagon is now included in every Windows build and first implementation of this new technology has been introduced in Windows 10 April 2018 Update (RS4). You can learn more about this project here:

Best regards,



by pi3


We’ve just announced a new version of LKRG 0.6! This release is… BIG! A few words why:

- We've introduced a new mitigation features which we call "poor's man CFI" (pCFI). It is designed to "catch" exploits which corrupts stack pointer to execute ROP and/or execute code not from the official .text section of the kernel (e.g. from the heap page, or user-mode page)
- We are using pCFI to enforce SMEP bit in CR4 and WP bit in CR0. If attacker disables one of that bits, LKRG will re-enable it again
- We've locked-down usermodehelper (UMH) interface - it will kill "class" of exploit abusing UMH
- We've completely rewrote *_JUMP_LABEL support - now it is independent of CPU architecture and can work on any CPU. Previously it was designed for x86 arch. New *_JUMP_LABEL support logic significantly reduce memory footprint, remove whitelisting, simplifies some algorithms and so on...
- We've introduce early boot systemd script/unit. Now you can easily manage LKRG service as any other service in the system. Systemd is the only init system which we support for now, but there is no reason to add support for other systems.
- We've fixed a few known problems with LKRG and made it more stable
- We've made all necessary changes to run LKRG on latest kernels
- A few more!

It’s a big release with a lot of changes. Full announcement can be found here:

Next, I would like to work on ARM support for LKRG. Stay tuned….



by pi3

I believe this is one of the most stable release so far 🙂
The full announcement can be found here:

I’m already working on the next version of LKRG which will include (among others) *_JUMP_LABEL support for modules as well (for now LKRG supports it just for kernel core .text). This is a big, complicate and heavy change and that’s why we decided to announce 0.4 now since we wanted to have a stable release.





by pi3

LKRG 0.2 was just released and the announcement note can be found here:

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by pi3

LKRG 0.1 was just released:

The change log is as follows:
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I’m happy to announce that my moonlight project is finally released. Thanks to Alexander Peslyak (a.k.a. Solar Designer) it is available through Openwall.

Linux Kernel Runtime Guard (LKRG) is a loadable kernel module that performs runtime integrity checking of the Linux kernel and detection of security vulnerability exploits against the kernel. As controversial as this concept is, LKRG attempts to post-detect and hopefully promptly respond to unauthorized modifications to the running Linux kernel (integrity checking) or to credentials (such as user IDs) of the running processes (exploit detection). For process credentials, LKRG attempts to detect the exploit and take action before the kernel would grant the process access (such as open a file) based on the unauthorized credentials. You can download the current experimental version of LKRG at its brand new homepage:

LKRG has been in (re-)development for a couple of years, and builds upon one of my prior’s experience with a related project in 2011 (for CERN).

Official announcement had been made by Openwall and it can be read here:

A lot of useful technical information about LKRG can be found on Openwall wiki page:

If you would like to support LKRG, you are very welcome to do so 😉 It can be done via Patreon website here:

Best regards,
Adam ‘pi3’ Zabrocki



by pi3

During Microsoft Patch Tuesday on April (2017) some of the Hyper-V vulnerabilities (found be me) were fixed:

Remote Code Execution – CVE-2017-0181 (details)
Denial of Service – CVE-2017-0182 (details)
Denial of Service – CVE-2017-0186 (details)


The journey into CVE-2014-9322 is not straightforward but it is worth to spend some time on it and analyze all available information. I will try my best…

Read more



by pi3

As some of you know I am(was) active developer in ERESI project. ERESI stands for The ERESI Reverse Engineering Software Interface, its web page stands at:



For those who do not know the project, The ERESI Reverse Engineering Software Interface is a multi-architecture binary analysis framework with a domain-specific language tailored to reverse engineering and program manipulation.

  • Feature both user-mode and kernel-mode support for instrumentation, debugging and program analysis
  • Handle INTEL and SPARC machine programs (partial support for ARM, MIPS and ALPHA processors).
  • Designed for analysis of Operating Systems based on the Executable & Linking Format (ELF) in particular on the Linux OS.
  • Support many features on *BSD, Solaris, HP-UX, IRIX and BeOS.
  • Trace into any OS in a virtual machine or emulator using the GDB serial protocol.
  • Construct and display program graphs in native code as well as Intermediate Representation (IR) code
  • Does not need symbols or debug info to operate most of its features (but will use them if available in ELF/DWARF/STABS)
  • Inject or debug code that runs without executable data segment (PaX, Openwall, etc)
  • Prone modularity and reuse of code.

Here are the main programs that compose the ERESI framework:

  • elfsh : An interactive and scriptable static program instrumentation tool for ELF binary files.
  • kernsh: An interactive and scriptable runtime kernel instrumentation tool for live code injection, modification and redirection.
  • e2dbg : An interactive and scriptable high-performance process debugger that works without standard OS debug API (without ptrace).
  • •etrace : A scriptable runtime process tracer working at full frequency of execution without generating traps.
  • kedbg: An interactive and scriptable OS-wide debugger interfaced with the GDB server, VMware, Qemu, Boches and OpenOCD (JTAG) via the GDB serial protocol.
  • Evarista: A work-in-progress static binary program transformer entirely implemented in the ERESI language.

Beside those top-level components, ERESI contains various libraries that can be used from one of the previously mentioned tools, or in a standalone third-party program:

  • libelfsh : the binary manipulation library used by ELFsh, Kernsh, E2dbg, and Etrace.
  • libe2dbg : the embedded debugger library operating within the debuggee program.
  • libasm : the smart disassembling engine (x86, sparc, mips, arm) that gives both syntactic and semantic attributes to instructions and their operands.
  • libmjollnir : the control flow analysis and fingerprinting library.
  • librevm : the Runtime ERESI virtual machine, that contains the central runtime environment implementation of the framework.
  • libstderesi : the standard ERESI library containing more than 100 built-in analysis commands.
  • libaspect : the aspect library brings its API to reflect code and data structures in the ERESI language.
  • libedfmt : the ERESI debug format library which can convert dwarf and stabs debug formats to the ERESI debug format.
  • libetrace : the ERESI tracer library, on which Etrace is based.
  • libkernsh : the Kernel shell library is the kernel accessibility library on which Kernsh is based.
  • libgdbwrap : The GDB serial protocol library, for compatibility between ERESI and GDB/VMware/Boches/QeMu/OpenOCD.

ERESI is quite famous project. Many technical articles about ERESI was published on the phrack (#61, #63). In 2007 ERESI team gave a talk at Blackhat European Conference. In 2008 we gave invited talk at the SSTIC conference.

ERESI active development has restart as of February 2013. Most of our developers was very busy for last few years and unfortunately project wasn’t on the top of our priority. I hope now we will be able to finish our ideas and make up for lost time…


Best regards,